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Best Paper Awards 2016

Best Research Paper

Dr. Michelle Burger
University of Pretoria, South Africa
 

Best Student Paper

Ms. Hannah Allawi
University of Calgary, Canada

Best Paper Awards 2015

Best Research Paper

Dr. Grzegorz Pęczek
Sopot University of Applied Sciences, Poland

Dr. Justyna Martyniuk-Pęczek
& Dr. Olga Martyniuk

Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Best Student Paper

Deepanjan Saha
Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India


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Selected Paper Submissions for Oral Presentation at UPPD 2017 (as at 22 May 2017)


PAPER TITLE

Improvements in urban transport a ect not just the market for transport but the markets for labor, real estate and services in a city. These micro-level impacts of such investments are little studied, particularly in developing countries. In this paper, we provide a credible causal estimate of the e ect of a new urban mass transit line in Lahore, Pakistan on labor and housing markets and the organization of local economic activity. We use areas which were slated for transit routes that either have not yet been built (planned lines) or were removed from the plans (cancelled lines) as a comparison group for areas connected by transit. Within such areas, we sample areas that were comparable on observables at two points in time before the transit was built, and collect data on household and neighborhood outcomes three years after transit was introduced. We nd that the transit caused workers to switch from other modes to public transit and reduced average commute times to work. We do not see signi cant changes in work on labor force participation or job choice, but we do nd evidence that local transit stops increased the proportion of renters in nearby areas and increased the activity of small local businesses.
Inadequate supply of affordable housing for persons of lower economic status has plagued many countries. This inadequacy is exacerbated by the expense of tenure legitimization through formal channels. The end result is a constant increase in squatter communities. This paper, through the use of surveys and interviews, explores one concept (Board Scheme Concept) that has been utilized by lower income families in western Jamaica to arrive at de facto legitimate housing solutions. It is then applied to squatting to determine the potential for implementation and a review of similar such tenure security initiatives in alignment with the concept. The results suggest that a burdened formal titling system can be simplified, thereby reducing fear of loss of tenure, by creating a bridge between private and government owned land ownership processes utilizing other simplistic land lease approaches to tenure, which in turn may create the potential for permanent homeownership.
The term City Infrastructures is restricted often to the physical elements of a city, while in practice it represents both hard infrastructure of built environment and utilities, as well as soft infrastructures comprising services, networks, social groupings, and personal skills. Part of the confusion is the lack of clarity about the role and delivery of infrastructure and its relationship to livelihood and livability. To address this issue, a critical examination was undertaken of urban sustainability from perspectives of City Infrastructures using an interdisciplinary framework that investigates the relationships, conflicts and connections between soft and hard infrastructures in terms of utilities, institutions, communities and personal skills.
Energy exists in many different forms such as light energy, heat energy, mechanical energy, gravitational energy, electrical energy, sound energy, chemical energy, nuclear or atomic energy and so on. These forms of energy can be relocated and converted between one another. When source of energy end up as electricity it moves with many transformations before it can power the light bulb. The aim of this study was to explore the level of student’s awareness on the importance of saving energy as well as to investigate knowledge practice and attitude towards energy consumption. The data was collected using a mixed-method approach that combines both quantitative and qualitative forms. Primary data was collected through key informant through interview among students of the United Arab Emirates University (UAEU) in Al Ain. Secondary data was collected from Al Ain Municipality. The first outcome of the research was the main cause of overuse of energy consumption is lack of awareness. The second outcome was that consumers are unable to assess whether their consumption is low, average or high. The third outcome was that most of students understand how the energy consumption effects the environment and they will try their best to help manage and control this issue. Overall the results show the negative effects of overuse of energy consumption to our environment and suggest that to bridge the gap; human beings should change their behavior to save our environment. Therefore, major challenge will be to introduce a set of uniform energy policies to address specific constraints to the household adoption of energy conservation practices.
Satellite Townships is the latest trend in town planning. In almost every metropolis globally, whenever pressure of population and employment has increased, planners have come up with satellite townships. The Wikipedia definition of a Satellite Town is; “A satellite town or satellite city is a concept in urban planning that refers essentially to smaller metropolitan areas which are located somewhat near to, but are mostly independent of larger metropolitan areas”. So far planning of Satellite Townships is concerned, across the globe, they are planned as separate towns which will fundamentally, or administratively be dependent on the metro city but will remain independent for the daily commute of the residents. Execution of this philosophy has vastly failed. A sample sentence while searching for Satellite Town in Oxford dictionary says; “Not least of the problems is the fact that more and more of those who are employed in Dublin are being forced to live in satellite towns and commute forty or fifty miles or more to work.” This indeed says that the problem is not confined to India. Be it Gurgaon, Noida, Faridabad, Navi Mumbai, Thane or Salt Lake; none have successfully grown up as independent Cities. Even though land uses are planned for self dependent towns, almost in all cases, the satellites are acting either as the place of residence for ones working in the main city or vice versa. Newtown is a similar Satellite Township near Kolkata in the state of West Bengal in India. In last 10 Years, Newtown has seen a huge increase in investment and growth. Whereas most parts of the CBD & Sub CBDs are developed, a proportionate residential unit have not come up. While commercial development has happened extremely fast and huge employment opportunity has been generated, proportionate amount of shelter has not been created. Moreover, the cost of developing a Greenfield site is also added to the cost of housing making it less affordable. This situation has already forced many people, employed in Newtown, to accommodate themselves to distant places and is causing people to commute longer distance daily, making roads leading to Newtown congested. During the peak hours, all roads connecting Newtown & Kolkata are getting stalled due to heavy traffic. The situation is already alarming when Newtown has not even reached half of its population & employment capacity. Employees in Newtown are, on an average, traveling more than 30 Kilometres daily to go to the office and come back. Affordability is the primary reason for them not to shift to Newtown. Almost the entire public investment is being made to create or increase the supply of transport, however, the actions to reduce the need of transport is neglected. It is understood that the distance between home and office is the primary cause of traffic bottleneck in almost all roads in the city. Reducing the need for transport will require no maintenance cost and will end the never-ending cycle of demand-supply gap. In this report, taking Newtown as a Case Study Area, it is tried to explore a method of shifting people close to their place of work. If a majority of employees reside in the vicinity of their offices, transport problems can be reduced hugely since work trips constitute the largest share. ‘Incentive Based Populating Model’ is one method where incentive & facilities to employees are provided for residing close to their house. It can have much higher economic and financial return than spending the same money in capital expenditure of creating infrastructure for transport.
Socio-economic status of women that gradually change through time has a reflection on the spatial organisation. In the context of Dhaka status of women has changed with their education and participation in the economic activities especially in the middle income group families. The extent of activity of women expanded from household activities to the outer world, which impacts on their attitude at home, making them more confident in decision making process. In the domestic spatial organization of the urban houses in Dhaka the symbolic gender aspects like segregation, privacy and dominance are influenced by the socio-economic status of the middle income group women which is reflected in the spatial organisation. This paper studies socio-economic impact on the spatial organisation of middle income group apartments. Space Syntax analysis compliments questionnaire interview of the female heads of fifty contemporary MIG apartments. With the interview, the attitude of present day women is studied and it has been identified that the women, although have a changed role in the family, are seen to perform activities in their household spaces in more or less similar ways. In the compact MIG apartments the female users are confronting with their symbolic perceptions and spatial requirements and in most of the cases, they are compromising with their symbolic perceptions to sustain in the densely populated city.
This paper is a description and analysis of the evolution of New England (USA’s) key ports from the end of World War II (1945) to the present. Based on our professional and academic research work, we have concluded that these ports, despite economic difficulties, changes in shipping patterns, the decline of the regions fishing industry and climate changes, have transformed themselves and are well prepared for the most part, to play a major role in the continuous evolution of the region’s economy.
Space Syntax is a multi-platform software platform to perform a set of spatial network analyses designed to understand social processes within the built environment, It works at a variety of scales from building through small urban to whole cities or states. At each scale, the aim of the software is to produce a map of open space elements, connect them via some relationship (for example, intervisibility or overlap) and then perform graph analysis of the resulting network. The objective of the analysis is to derive variables which may have social or experiential significance. This paper uses the space syntax method in quantitative analysis of narrative environment of city, the organic combination of human activities and events and the story of space forms gives meaning to quantitative concept of the narrative environment, the analyses of existing problems for the history of the city from the angle of quantitative and provides corresponding suggestions for the history of urban transformation.
The smart city concept has existed for decades now. It was presented as a response to help cities cope with challenges they were facing such as rapid urbanization, climate change, resource depletion, and sustainability. Based mainly on sensors, flow optimization and algorithms, this model has revealed its limits. In smart city endeavors, citizens are seldom included in the planning process, although they hold a central position to produce and share useful knowledge on how they live and use the city. Technology has already been exploited to enhance city management, but it is still widely underused in urban planning even though it holds great promise. It has the potential to create tools that improve interaction between urban planners and city dwellers, which is a key aspect for more sustainable and responsive planning. This study explores how digital technologies can be harnessed to generate new ways of involving citizens in city planning, using the data they produce. Digital tools are changing the whole practice of urban planning by adding a non-expert but practiced knowledge layer in the planning process towards more sustainable cities.
This paper is a description and analysis of the evolution of New England (USA’s) key ports from the end of World War II (1945) to the present. Based on our professional and academic research work, we have concluded that these ports, despite economic difficulties, changes in shipping patterns, the decline of the regions fishing industry and climate changes, have transformed themselves and are well prepared for the most part, to play a major role in the continuous evolution of the region’s economy.
The purpose of this research is to characterize the implementation process of a New Town in South Korea. From the recognition of the methodology, steps, accounts and products, we intend to prepare a guide, to conform a reference used by institutions working in the city management in Brazil. The study adopts the principle that, although different realities, the implementation of the New Towns presents general requirements replicated in Latin American cities. As an example, it will be taken a case study about the city of Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. It is hoped that the results of this study may be passed on to Brazilian municipalities and, through comparative studies, to other Latin American countries.
Urban planning affects the distribution of urban thermal environment. In order to analyze and to mitigate the urban heat island effect, the relevant studies have proposed Urban Climatic Map (UC-Map) with temperature scale. The definition of the urban heat island is a special phenomenon of the distribution of local temperature differences. Yet the urban ‘heat island’ is actually the heat gathering, not temperature, while the traditional UC-Map is not enough to show the thermal status in a city. This study, a visualization analysis by data collection of the impact factors of urban climate, would try to understand the urban climate characteristics by enthalpy distribution instead of temperature alone and conduct the link with the actual urban planning elements and features, so that we could explore positive and negative associations between the enthalpy distribution map and thermal comfort in subtropical urban areas.
With the aid of spatial analysis and simulation tool, such as space syntax and Cellular Automata (thereinafter referred to as “CA”) and on the basis of the typical example of downtown central area in Bengbu City, this paper carried out an analysis of the function aggregation and dispersion phenomenon of central area and a study of the spatial usage and distribution of different functional elements from the perspective of the geometric attribute of space itself as well as the logical relationship hidden behind the geometric attribute, based on which four spatial evolution models of four development stages of central area has been derived, and a summary and conclusion has been made on the basic characteristics and general rules of the transformation of central area. According to the study, the evolution of spatial form of central area and the evolution of its functional structure are highly homologous. In the construction and evolution process of central functions, the commercial and business service functions successively become the main contents of central function development; in the meanwhile, they also become order parameters that determine the transformation stages of central spatial forms. Subjected to the influence of the essential attributes of industrial advanced development itself, the central functional system is constantly adjusting its own functional structure. As a result, the functional structure, scale and functional elements of central area as well as the individual space usage and the integral space distribution are also changed, which further influences the overall spatial from of the central area; on the other hand, the changes of urban integral spaces determine the changes of locations of urban central areas, which further influences the value of land. This determines the proportion of investment in land capitals and building capitals in the process of central land development, and then determines the changes of land utilization approaches, which ultimately influences the distribution and structure relationship of central functions.
This paper presents the research process and results developed with the objective of discussing the possibilities and limits of an interactive database of land value capture tools in Latin American cities. The research starts with the recognition of the importance of the approximation between academic research and the practical demands of city management. Relevant cases information of land value capture was organized on a virtual platform using Carto free software. The data sources consisted of documents available on websites, supplemented by field research with municipal administrations. The research results should contribute to the dissemination of successful land value capture policies aimed at financing urban development.
Planners, designers, government officials and citizens are interested in creating safe environments, such as in mitigating the effects of earthquakes. In this investigation, various landscapes associated with the Wenchuan earthquake in China are examined to assess environmental safety. Three landscape treatments (k=3) were assessed by seven variables (b=7). The study employed the Freidman analysis of variance statistics to test the treatments, resulting in the confirmation that some treatments were significantly better and safer than other designs (p≤0.05). The designs that were significantly more safe include spaces where the buildings are less tall, there is more space between the building, the buildings are neither in the floodplain nor in landslide zones, there are many escape routes for people experiencing and earthquake and there are large open environments for refugees and the transportation provided by helicopters. If such principles were in common practice during the 20th century, approximately 421,000 earthquake-related deaths could have been avoided.
In any country’s broad social agenda, housing is an important element as it is one of the basic human needs. Housing is also a central element for natural or artificial disasters, health issues, social standing, education and many other aspects of our lives. Promotion of building a socially responsive or post disaster house, while planning for naturally occurring calamities and social inequities has shed light on the field of responsive and responsible housing management. Thus, as a goal to achieve a disaster response house in emergency situations or to provide a socially responsive housing option, we developed a strategy to create a safe, effective housing unit. This unit was built from a used storage container and a kit of sustainable materials that proves cost, space and time effective. Housing has always been an important social issue for poor and developing countries. Through sustainable housing, in a wide sense, we aim to ensure the protection of the environment by using natural resources as a source of energy to provide disaster relief, social training, and improved shelter, that would eventually promote economic and social progress. The structure is built from a prepackaged unit or kit, which is shipped to the location required, and the occupant can individually, without professional assistance, build their home.
In Taiwan, Falling Weight Deflector (FWD) is commonly applied to the detection of highway and airport pavements. However, the applications of FWD to the evaluation of pavement damages for the roads with heavy traffic in city area are rarely performed. In this study, FWD was applied to the Zhongshan Rd. with heavy traffic in Kaohsiung city. Using core samplings and Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) tests can provide the thicknesses of surface, base, and subbase layers of Zhongshan Rd.. Then, the FWD deflections were calculated, and the resilience moduli were back calculated at different locations. Moreover, the FWD data was applied to the computer codes MODULUS 6.0 and FPS 21 to obtain the elastic modulus at each layer in the pavement. When the detected FWD deflection was larger than 25 mils, it suggests that structural problems in the pavement were produced and the pavement required further maintenance.
In Taiwan, Falling Weight Deflector (FWD) is commonly applied to the detection of highway and airport pavements. However, the applications of FWD to the evaluation of pavement damages for the roads with heavy traffic in city area are rarely performed. In this study, FWD was applied to the Zhongshan Rd. with heavy traffic in Kaohsiung city. Using core samplings and Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) tests can provide the thicknesses of surface, base, and subbase layers of Zhongshan Rd.. Then, the FWD deflections were calculated, and the resilience moduli were back calculated at different locations. Moreover, the FWD data was applied to the computer codes MODULUS 6.0 and FPS 21 to obtain the elastic modulus at each layer in the pavement. When the detected FWD deflection was larger than 25 mils, it suggests that structural problems in the pavement were produced and the pavement required further maintenance.
Planners and designers are interested in understanding place cognition, meaning how does one know where they are in the environment? For example, this is true for individuals arriving at a train station, where the visitor has never experienced that specific train stop before. In this investigation, the recognition of place is examined for a train station location in East Lansing, Michigan. In this study, five design treatments (k=5) for East the Lansing Train Station are analyzed. Twelve images for each treatment (b=12) were prepared from the windows of the train directed at the train station. Forty five respondents stacked the pictures into Q-sort groups associated with the cognition of the space. Through Friedman’s Two-Way Analysis of Variance, the results suggested that at least one treatment was significantly different than another design treatment (p<0.005). The Friedman’s Multiple Comparison test revealed that each of the treatments were significantly different from one another (p<0.05). Treatments with strong place-based symbolism associated were more readily noted with a specific landscape setting, the East Lansing train station.
In view of the Earth's growing population, increasing consumer behavior, the threat of climate change facing future generations, and the possibility of growing food shortages, the linear economy still accompanies individuals from the cradle to the grave. This study seeks to gather data concerning circular economies and green transportation from a review and analysis of the literature, establish a theoretical basis from analysis of the literature, and attempt to connect theoretical gaps and link two different theoretical accounts of circular economies with rail transportation. Relying on Kenneth E. Boulding's spatial economics theory and the Ellen MacArthur Foundation's research and practical experience, for investigates the development of circular economics, and attempts to apply the concept taking for the Eastern region of Taiwan as an experimental research area. The study hopes to overcome constraining frameworks and establish a circular economy development strategy for railway transportation after examining existing railway transportation conditions, and proposes the employment of steps including an inventory of railway transportation resources, establishment of production histories, management and allocation of resources, and establishment of railway station resource sharing platforms, while further incorporating educational awareness, legislative regulation, and active international cooperation and study of practice.
‘Housing’ is not only the fundamental requirement for the living of people, but also the representation of human right practice in a country. The current unreasonable phenomena in the Taiwan property market such as high housing price, high vacant rate, and low land tax rate have caused the heavy burden of social vulnerable groups and young generation striving for living space. The first priority of the study is to estimae the quantity of social vulnerable groups to identify the housing demand of social vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the study reviews the current housing assistance programs which should above all secure the fundamental human right of socio-economic underclass for housing and then differentiate the delivery according to the extent of socio-economic disadvantages to achieve the vertical equity of distribution. Finally, it proposes the strategies and suggestions for implementing social housing, providing government incentives, encouraging the involvement of social enterprise, achieving social inclusion, and reducing housing discrimination.
The Bairro Residencial de Nova Oeiras (Nova Oeiras Neighbourhood Unit / BRNO) stands in the surroundings of Lisbon, the capital city of Portugal, as one of the most qualified and active built communities in the country.
Investigators are interested in the perception of landscape elements in the urban setting. The study team was interested in assessing the aesthetic benefits that mountain landscape features provide adjacent to urban settings. The study are is Aspen, Colorado. Utilizing a well studied predictive visual quality equation to assess the perception of viewers. Kendall’s coefficient of concordance statistical test suggests that the area of mountains in an urban image or view concurs with the predictive visual quality equation (p<0.05). The study also suggests that about 3 percent of any image or view containing mountains will improve the visual perception of urban settings.
This paper presents Humpback, a plugin for the computational tool Grasshopper. In our background research we identified that due to limited workflow connection between Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and computational design tools, a gap of informed urban design outcomes exists. Humpback extends Grasshoppers capability to read and write GeoJSON; a geographic data format. This enables a new approach to urban planning by allowing computationally generated forms to be visualised in GIS software. These tools produce iterative, smarter urban solutions, which can be shared on a wider platform. This paper introduces and details Humpback’s creation, evaluates the tool, as well as its application to Mapbox, a GIS platform and its potential for Urban Pinboard, a web-based GIS platform.
Doha has embarked in massive urbanization processes to prepare for mega sporting events. The rapid urbanization and the huge inflows of the multicultural population have posed significant questions to the housing market in the city. The urban spaces of Doha are experienced by a multiplicity of cultural groups. The analysis of housing preferences predicts the future housing market of Doha. The study aims to investigate the urban and housing development, explore the lifestyle and demography of the multicultural population in relation to housing preferences, and to outlook the future housing dynamics and tendencies in Doha. The study is conducted through: 1) analysis of statistical data, 2) survey of existing housing typologies and 3) questionnaire survey. The review of the statistical data of the published real estate reports and governmental plan documents will reveal the existing housing market conditions. The survey of housing typologies in Doha from 2000 to 2015 is conducted by collecting housing samples of villas and apartments, which were identified as the dominant typologies during this period. A total of 60 housing samples are collected to conclude the typologies that are favored in the context of multicultural societies. These typologies are defined based on the location: downtown, waterfront, and suburban. The questionnaire survey is conducted for 388 residents in Doha, to conclude housing preferences in terms of lifestyles and demographic patterns. The study will predict guidance for housing planning decisions in terms of housing preferences, which will be used by the government and local authorities to develop housing policies and economic diversification initiatives in the future.
This paper discusses the possibilities of infrastructure master planning and generation using biomimicry of Slime Molds (Physarum Polycephalum). Selected real life experiments were chosen to aid the creation of an algorithm, which simulated the behavior of Slime Molds within a digital environment. The analysis of topography is the foundation on which the Slime Mold algorithm grows upon. The proven algorithm is then used to create transport infrastructure links at an inner-city scale. Tweaking the behavior of the digital Slime Mold, tests are done to demonstrate different varieties in which growth and connection could be achieved. The final experiment discusses how the transport infrastructure could be subdivided between existing major transport hubs, in turn creating catchment areas in which suburbs can be planned and developed. These catchment areas are based upon user defined rulesets and the gradient of the topography. Based on the tests and experiments, the behavior of Slime Molds could not only be simulated and grown according to topography within a digital environment but also manipulated to suit individual projects.
There is a concern on the need for a global city to formulate urban cultural regeneration strategies to transform idle or abandoned campuses into cultural consumption spaces, which help build a city that characterizes cultural innovation, space revitalization, exhibition and performances in combination with the local culture. This study focuses on the case of the Dadong Culture and Arts Center in the Kaohsiung City of Taiwan using the SERVQUAL instrument of the PZB service quality model to draft a questionnaire. This study uses the Impact Range-Performance Analysis (IRPA) and Impact Asymmetry Analysis (IA) to evaluate the service quality of the Center and to explore what needs improvement. The results show that the Dadong Culture and Arts Center does not have a focused and definite development orientation and policies that lead to the lack of its own unique characteristics. The Center does not satisfy the actual needs of urban residents well either, such as parking space provision, integration of the community surroundings, information disclosure on its official website, and especially the conversion of the neighborhood into a heritage district.
The demand for student housing in South Africa has risen over the last decade. While enrolment across all socio-economic sectors at universities across South Africa has increased drastically, the number of beds to accommodate students has not kept up with the demand. The purpose of the paper was to determine, from a developer’s point of view, what aspects are important for students when choosing rental accommodation when attending university. To assess this importance, a representative sample of students from the University of Pretoria was used to gauge their preferences regarding various aspects such as the amount of rental per month, sharing accommodation, proximity to campus, etc. The insights from students’ feedback provide a picture of these needs. The value of the study is that it provide information to developers who can help them to improve the future provision of student accommodation in South Africa.
A lake provides a wide range of ecological services useful for the sustenance and betterment of human lives and other living organisms. A lake is a reflection of its catchment, if the catchment area is healthy, then the ecological services provided are better. The fast-paced developmental activities in the catchment area of lakes and the over-consumption of available resources are resulting in the degradation of lake’s ecological services. The Upper Lake in Bhopal, a million plus population city situated in the central part of India has been selected for the study. The current regulatory regime for environmental conservation of the catchment area comprises of a legislative framework and a set of regulatory institutions. Inadequacies in each result not only in accelerated environmental degradation but also delays and escalates the costs of development projects. Development control regulations for the catchment area of urban water bodies require a holistic approach. This paper is an attempt to find out the gaps in the existing institutional framework to conserve the catchment area. The focus is to identify and assess the major issues pertaining to the degradation of the Upper Lake and its catchment area and formulation of development regulations for its conservation. For the purpose of this study, the catchment area of Upper Lake has been delineated with the help of catchment area assessment technique. The existing development regulations and policies prevailing in the selected area was reviewed for identifying the gaps responsible for environmental degradation of the catchment area. Geographic information system is used extensively for analyzing environmental status and a primary survey targeting the village stakeholders in catchment area was conducted to analyze socio-economic profile and to assess the agricultural practices adopted. As an outcome, an institutional framework is formulated to conserve, govern and monitor the catchment area and the Upper Lake.
What made the narrow townhouse, narrower than 6 m (20 ft), a suitable structure for public markets in medieval times, a dwelling for the nobility in the Renaissance, and a type of affordable housing in the modern era? Massey & Maxwell regard the townhouse as a type of building, rather than a building style.1 This observation lay the foundation that explains how the townhouse adapted to fit particular time periods and geographical locations, and their respective aesthetics values. While the building has remained structurally identical, it has undergone manipulations of interior room layout and exterior expression. Despite the differences in style, material, ornamentation, and detail over their history, townhouses all share one common property: the continuous façade of several joint units. By examining variations of narrow-front townhouses this paper establishes what factors or elements were responsible for its evolution. The author concludes that the design survived changes in economic conditions and social values, and political upheaval due to the inherent adaptability of its basic form, remaining part of the architectural context in every era.
A lake provides a wide range of ecological services useful for the sustenance and betterment of human lives and other living organisms. A lake is a reflection of its catchment, if the catchment area is healthy, then the ecological services provided are better. The fast-paced developmental activities in the catchment area of lakes and the over-consumption of available resources are resulting in the degradation of lake’s ecological services. The Upper Lake in Bhopal, a million plus population city situated in the central part of India has been selected for the study. The current regulatory regime for environmental conservation of the catchment area comprises of a legislative framework and a set of regulatory institutions. Inadequacies in each result not only in accelerated environmental degradation but also delays and escalates the costs of development projects. Development control regulations for the catchment area of urban water bodies require a holistic approach. This paper is an attempt to find out the gaps in the existing institutional framework to conserve the catchment area. The focus is to identify and assess the major issues pertaining to the degradation of the Upper Lake and its catchment area and formulation of development regulations for its conservation. For the purpose of this study, the catchment area of Upper Lake has been delineated with the help of catchment area assessment technique. The existing development regulations and policies prevailing in the selected area was reviewed for identifying the gaps responsible for environmental degradation of the catchment area. Geographic information system is used extensively for analyzing environmental status and a primary survey targeting the village stakeholders in catchment area was conducted to analyze socio-economic profile and to assess the agricultural practices adopted. As an outcome, an institutional framework is formulated to conserve, govern and monitor the catchment area and the Upper Lake.
There is a concern about the need for a global city to formulate urban cultural regeneration strategies to transform idle or abandoned campuses into cultural consumption spaces, which help build a town that characterizes cultural innovation, space revitalization, exhibition and performances in combination with the local culture. This study focuses on the case of the Dadong Culture and Arts Center in the Kaohsiung City of Taiwan using the SERVQUAL instrument of the PZB service quality model to draft a questionnaire. This study uses the Impact Range-Performance Analysis (IRPA) and Impact Asymmetry Analysis (IA) to evaluate the service quality of the Center and to explore what needs improvement. The results show that the Dadong Culture and Arts Center does not have a focused and definite development orientation and policies that lead to the lack of its unique characteristics. The Center does not satisfy the actual needs of urban residents well either, such as parking space provision, integration of the community surroundings, information disclosure on its official website, and especially the conversion of the neighborhood into a heritage district.
This study aims to discuss the short and long term effects of Metropolitan Municipality Law on agriculture in Turkey. With this law, fourteen cities with a population over 750 000 has converted into metropolitan municipality regardless of any other criteria, in this study two (Balıkesir and Van) of those Cities will be examined. The reason that the two cities were selected for study is because both of them have agricultural based economy.
The residential typology in Malaysia has not undergone much evolution on perspectives of sharing and co-existence. With a forecast of more than 80% of the population living in the cities by 2030, it is essential to provide the community and the people who contribute to the economy with a better urban lifestyle. There has been seemingly too much uncontrolled urban sprawl with no ecological sensitivity thereby leading to wastage of valuable shared resources. This is why there is a need to redefine the typology for communities targeting young entrepreneurs. Architecture is thus able to steer the Small and Medium Enterprises towards a knowledge-based economy which is thereby beneficial to the entire community. With the availability of literature reviews and case studies on shared spaces, the implementation of adequate design strategies can, therefore, provide young entrepreneurs with user-oriented co-working spaces so as to improve productivity, efficiency, and innovation. At the same time, the increase in social interaction will empower and give rise to a creative and resilient community. With the growing student population and young graduates in Kuala Lumpur, there is a great potential to explore the efficiency of co-working spaces. Recommendations on design qualities will then be developed based on the relevant literature and case studies. Finally, this research aims to understand how to successfully empower urban communities for young entrepreneurs in Malaysia through an architecture of shared spaces.
The use of negotiated planning agreements is a common practice in countries such as the United Kingdom, where a discretionary (project-led) planning system is in place. The boost in the use of planning agreements and the changes in their nature coincide with the shift in the planning paradigm and the evolving role of planners. Planners assumed the role of technocrats, mediators, and advocates over the lifetime of the profession. With the adoption of neoliberal policies, however, the state increasingly prioritized the interests of private capital, and private developers could exercise further influence on the planning process. Consequently, planners became increasingly compelled to serve as facilitators of development. Meanwhile, planning agreements became an integral part of the planning process not only in discretionary planning systems but also in regulatory (plan-led) planning systems. Against this backdrop, this paper provides an outline of the shifts in the planning profession, briefly explains the regulatory planning system in Turkey, and reflects on the making of planning agreements in Turkey by focusing on a case in Istanbul.
The objective of this study is to examine the impact of land use changes on pipeline right-of-way in Arepo, Nigeria. Landsat (TM) of 1986, Landsat Enhancement Thematic Mapping (ETM+) of 2002 and 2016 images were used for spatiotemporal changes in the study area. The study employed supervised digital image classification method using ILWIS 3.2 And Arcview 3.1 GIS software. The land use was classified into built up areas, vegetation, creek, swamp and undeveloped. Questionnaire methods were used to collect social data. The results show that the swamps have been replaced by built-up areas which indicate that developments had been carried out in the study area. The results also show increased level of urbanization around the pipeline and unabated encroachment Along the Pipeline Right-of-Way in the study area. To this end, the capability of remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) have been explored to generate maps and vulnerability analysis which give useful information about the pipelines encroachment as a result of urban expansion. This paper, therefore, recommends total removal of structures on the Pipeline Right-of-Way to reduce the vulnerability level of the residents.
The urban fabric of cities is going through a sea change in line with the global economic boom. Our tryst with creating a livable, equitable and sustainable environment that fosters community interaction and cultural integrity is unending. Public spaces play a very important role in the process of placemaking. Nevertheless, with rapid urban agglomeration engulfing cities with towering heights, public places are not given the entitled importance that is a desideratum. Public spaces, like many other things, are often not appreciated until their demise. The need for public spaces has been displayed throughout history and their existence has defined and shaped the cities into an integrated social organization. This paper highlights the necessity of such spaces and strategies our development plans to inculcate healthy, safe, green and sustainable public spaces in the years to come.
This paper assesses some selected characteristics of condition of residential buildings in Akure, Nigeria. The objectives of the research include, assessment of type of housing unit, plot coverage, number of rooms, setback to buildings, housing tenure, condition of in-house tap, type of toilet facility and age of buildings in the study area. The study made use of both primary and secondary data. The sample size of 1,134 respondents was distributed in the proportion of 567; 425; and 142 for the core, transition and peripheral zones respectively. A total of 831 representing 73.28% out of the total 1,134 questionnaires administered were retrieved and used for analysis. The findings show that, for residential buildings in Akure, 62.3% of the buildings were tenement buildings. At the city core, 88.6% of respondents developed their lands above 50%, while at the periphery above 50% plot coverage had 20.0%. Furthermore, housing in the study area is inadequate to meet their needs. Also, 7.1 percent of the residential buildings at the core did not meet the required minimum setback, 29.7% of households had no in-house tap and the buildings constructed in less than a decade had 19.0% among others. The paper recommends enforcement of building regulations, introduction of environmental inspectors and government investment in urban infrastructure just to mention a few.
The management of surface water flooding is hindered by the characteristics of urban Drainage, and urban land uses. The presence, of large sealed surfaces in an urban area ( such as Buildings Roads, car parks) raises the volume of surface water runoff and lowers the underground water percolation from paved coverings. Similarly open and green vegetated spaces reduce direct runoff and facilitate the water infiltration to the ground and through evapotranspiration back into the air. Several studies carried out have modelled surface water runoff from different types of land uses and found that it increases with the proportion of built up areas. Despite these facts, some urban catchments still reveal a better natural water cycle though built up is more in them as compared to with less in others, but facing disturbed natural hydrological cycle. Therefore it is apparent that land use, land cover and the eva-po-transpiring surfaces have a significant influence on the behaviour of water in the urban water cycle and related surface runoff urban flooding, and ground water recharge. The paper attempts to correlate land use, land cover, built up and resulting runoff for urban watersheds. It also finds out correlation between local bye laws and behaviour of water cycle over it. For this purpose 19 urban water catchments were studied for their development scenario bye laws, built up, runoff and water tables for past 30 years and above. Observations were used to correlate urban parameters with hydrological ones and bring a model solution for balanced water cycle achievement during urbanization.
Agitation refers to an abnormal mental state leading to dangerous activities and behaviors. Agitation is one of the most challenging behaviors among mental patients. Lower agitation levels lead to the effectiveness of treatment in hospital procedures, and it is convenient for doctors and medical staff to treat patients. Mental hospitals that are situated in urban environments can cause agitation. The empirical literature reveals that exposure to daylight can reduce agitation in psychic patients. This research aims to clarify the impact of daylight in the mentally disabled patients in urban settings regarding agitation levels. The research presented here consists of literature review, field work, observations and building performance simulations. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), Angoda was selected as the case study. NIMH is the largest mental hospital in Sri Lanka and it is situated in an urban landscape. Data collected from the study indicates two assumptions: first, agitation levels of patients and daylight had an inverse relationship. It was an identical relationship within the ward and with two different wards. Secondly, intentionally or not patients prefer to be in rich daylight. Patients exposed to higher daylight display lower agitation levels. Vice versa, patients exposed to lower daylight display slightly higher agitation levels. This assumption has revealed a clear correlation between daylight and agitation level. Results could be used to influence building designs in urban areas to obtain higher daylight levels inside hospital wards to maintain lower agitation levels. Design considerations may include proper design strategies to eliminate the inconvenience of higher daylight. Though the findings proved the hypothesis, this matter could be a part of a more extensive study. To create physical environments that are psychologically supportive and thereby to create health processes further research is needed
The objective of this paper is to understand the informal settlement re-development and provide inference in the form of design and planning solution looking through the lens of Urban Agriculture Urbanism. This method is important as it will ensure the sustainable growth of the city based on three major Factors Reuse, Reproduce and Recycle. It will reflect the number of vacant lands found in the city by using ArcGIS software, Google Maps and Land Use Maps by Mumbai government to project the scope of future development in the city (does not Include land in dispute i.e. Mill lands). The most interesting part of this analysis is that these vacant lots have the proximity of informal settlements and the source of water, which is contaminated as such. Moreover, these vacant lots could prove to be a powerful entity to give space to community life when streamlined with Urban Agriculture. Urbanism is an interesting aspect to perceive. As an example, the vacant lots or unused spaces in the city become wastelands whereas, on the contrary, the ones along the railway lines on each side were clean, fresh and evidently hygienic. This is one big advantage of Urban Agricultural Practice that I had witnessed as I was traveling through these places. Hence, this paper could play a major role in creating a stepping stone for transforming the cities in India by linking it to the “Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Initiative)”, an initiative by Honorable Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi. As 50% of the total population of Mumbai is dwelling in informal settlements, they are alleged as an eye sore and a black spot on the changing face of the city. Real estate developers are trying to get rid of it by initiating resettlement projects to relocate them in the suburbs. This way they can use those lands for their mean interests to create more and more residential and commercial complexes without actually addressing the need to have open spaces. Conversely, these informal settlements are a driving force in the economic development of the city. These people are the essential part of your day to day life in the form of helping hands. Moreover, the Millennium goals of the UN are designed to improve the condition of such people as they are the Ones who have the least awareness and the power to change. In my opinion, these settlements reflect the byproduct of our way of living. Certainly, migration is the major reason for the formation of informal settlements as cities are the burning pot of opportunity. In addition to this, it’s growing and eating up the source of living or traditional way of life of India i.e. Farming and Agriculture. Hence, this paper will focus on improving the way of life by providing the social, economic and ecological stability to an informal group of the society in the city of Mumbai. Mumbai is one such city projected to become world’s fourth largest city of the world in population by 2030. Sustainability always has been a very sensitive issue to address in the developing countries.
The grass is always greener on the other side”. This perception that has been stereotyped by our society today is the cause of brain drain phenomenon in Malaysia, whereby the brains of the society, young talents, especially fresh graduates are drained across borders. Based on a statistic from the World Bank, one out of ten Malaysians with tertiary degree background has migrated to an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) country in the year 2000 which quadrupled this diaspora over the past three decades. Many studies have been carried out, however little is known regarding the Malaysian context, notably, the construction professionals. Subsequently, the realization of our Vision 2020 is soon becoming insignificant as the construction industry which plays a pivotal role in our economy as a whole has not been able to achieve this milestone. This study carries the purpose to ensure us, fresh Quantity Surveying graduates be moulded and driven, thus acting as catalyst to achieve the newly established “Transformasi Nasional 50” (TN50). Thus, descriptive study has been carried out through quantitative surveys among Malaysia Quantity Surveyors graduates who are presently working abroad, with the intention to identify the propensity they left. The risk of the ‘pull’ and ‘push’ factors will be further analysed in this research. If this figure continually rises, there will soon be severe impacts towards Malaysia vision to be a high income nation. These findings allow those bodies governing the construction industry such as CIDB, BQSM and RISM to identify this group of talents and further understand the reason they left to ‘greener pastures’; hence, allowing them to implement solutions to retain, redraw and attract the QS professionals, ensuring the sustainability of human resources in Malaysia construction industry.
The outlook of real estate market in Malaysia was considered as somewhat bearish over the past few years, and the recent dampening of the ringgit has even compounded the effect onto the notion. Amidst substantial market turbulence, the rising living costs and escalating house prices are perceived to have critically impacted the millennial generation at this digital age. The soaring of housing prices, especially those located in the city hub have been worrying young millennials, as they are facing the predicament of being incapable to buy a home, not to mention their slow-growing earnings. In an attempt to address housing affordability issue promptly, this study is conducted to reveal the actual point at matter, which adopts descriptive survey method to review the literature that depicts the state of affairs as it exists at present. The collection of primary data will be acquired through pilot interviews and questionnaire surveys that target on millennials. The findings of the paper incorporate the challenges in housing affordability, criteria of housing preferences, as well as practical ways to improve affordability for youths. The research findings will be able to provide adequate information in identifying the main issue of urban housing affordability among millennials in order to develop effective resolutions before it turns imprudent to our country’s economy.
This research is to investigate their needs and suggest the design direction of leisure facilities. Unlike the existing approach based on the deterioration of physical ability, it is hoped that this will allow a new type of suggestion to enable the retirees to live their second lives. By analyzing the common memories and events from urban retirees, this research found that they developed their desire for leisure activities based on their experience of wealth and economic growths. In some preceding research, it was also pointed out that their actual leisure activities are still static and passive. Through the interview, this research has found that there are 45 indoor activities and 75 outdoor leisure activities, while their potential demands for leisure further extends to 88. With outdoor activities outnumbering indoor activities, the result was the opposite to the preceding research
The aggregate level to estimate congestion on urban arterial and sub-arterial roads of a city exhibiting heterogeneous traffic conditions by breaking the route into independent segments and approximating the origin-destination based traffic flow behaviour of the segments. The expected travel time in making a trip is modelled against sectional traffic characteristics (flow and speed) at origin and destination points of road segments, and roadway and segment traffic characteristics such as diversion routes are also tried in accounting for travel time. Predicted travel time is then used along with free flow time to determine the state of congestion on the segments using a congestion index (CI). A development of this kind may help in understanding traffic and congestion behaviour practically using easily accessible inputs, limited only to the nodes, and help in improving road network planning and management.
In most cases, oversupply of dwellings will reduce house prices and therefore making houses affordable. However, in Sydney a housing affordability problem, that is often viewed as a crisis, is caused by oversupply of dwellings. Even most parties such as politicians encourage more supply in an oversupply condition as an effort to ease or reduce exuberance house prices. This paper has revealed an evidence based on series data of statistic that shows this condition. The finding is significant as most ghost or empty houses or excess supply do exist and being hold by investors to inflate house prices further while the government policy is to build more supply that could increase risks beyond financial risk. Understanding the demand factor based on homeownership is therefore important to solve housing affordability.
The notion of urban limits has reached a state of vagueness along with the settlement of new infrastructure and the multiplication of communication media. The paper attempts to clarify the nature of urban limits and the role infrastructure plays in their constitution and dismantlement through a historical approach of two radically different cities: Paris and Tokyo.
This research is to investigate their needs and suggest the design direction of leisure facilities. Unlike the existing approach based on the deterioration of physical ability, it is hoped that this will allow a new type of suggestion to enable the retirees to live their second lives. By analyzing the common memories and events from urban retirees, this research found that they developed their desire for leisure activities based on their experience of wealth and economic growths. In some preceding research, it was also pointed out that their actual leisure activities are still static and passive. Through the interview, this research has found that there are 45 indoor activities and 75 outdoor leisure activities, while their potential demands for leisure further extends to 88. With outdoor activities outnumbering indoor activities, the result was the opposite to the preceding research.
In this essay, the idea of public sphere of Hannah Arendt will be consider. In her significant book “HUMAN CONDITION”, she described the concept of public and private spaces and how this public space acts as a key concept in new-world. She described and analysis the public spheres of Greek state- city called Polis in terms of weakness and strengths. What is important is that she support public spaces as a place for gathering and transforming the ideas. During the article, some ideas and critiques about her theory in aspect of feminism, Polis and public space has mentioned which mostly are from great philosophers and experts in urban studies and also from personal sight of view of writer

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